I finally succeed to solve my issue.
I will briefly explain how I did, it could help some users with the same issue.
Using a MacBook with a CD-reader (another MacBook than mine), I created a disk image of the original installation CD of Mac OS provided with my MacBook (the grey CD). I copied this disk image on a bootable USB flash drive.
I pluged an external hard drive to my MacBook, as well as the USB flash drive containing the copy of Mac OS. I then boot my laptop while pressing the 'alt' key.
I choose to boot on the Mac OS image. Then, just follow the steps to instal the OS system on the external hard drive.
Then, re-boot your laptop while pressing the 'alt' key. Choose to boot on the external hard drive. Then, you now have a working Mac OS environment. So, instal DiskWarrior on it (I found a version of DiskWarrior online).
And now, you can use DiskWarrior to repair your internal hard drive. It took a long time to process.
In attachment, you can see an example of the report from DiskWarrior.
After that, I was able to reboot on my internal hard drive ! Everything works fine !!
So thank you again for your help, MaLdOn ! The topic can be written as solved !