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How to Build an H-Bomb


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#1
consolation

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How to Build an H-Bomb


Making and owning an H-bomb is the kind of challenge
real Americans seek. Who wants to be a passive victim
of nuclear war when, with a little effort, you can be
an active participant? Bomb shelters are for losers.
Who wants to huddle together underground eating canned
Spam? Winners want to push the button themselves.
Making your own H-bomb is a big step in nuclear
assertiveness training -- it's called Taking Charge.
We're sure you'll enjoy the risks and the heady thrill
of playing nuclear chicken.

Introduction

When the Feds clamped down on The Progressive magazine
for attempting to publish an article on the manufacture
of the hydrogen bomb, it piqued our curiosity. Was it
really true that atomic and hydrogen bomb technology
was so simple you could build an H-bomb in your own
kitchen? Seven Days decided to find out. Food editor
Barbara Ehrenreich, investigative reporter Peter
Biskind, Photographer Jane Melnick and nuclear
scientist Michio Kaku were given three days to cook up
a workable H-bomb. They did and we have decided to
share their culinary secrets with you.


--------------------------------------------------------




Part 1: Making Your Bomb


Step 1: Getting the Ingredients


Uranium is the basic ingredient of the A-bomb. When a
uranium atom's nucleus splits apart, it releases a
tremendous amount of energy (for its size), and it
emits neutrons which go on to split other nearby
uranium nuclei, releasing more energy, in what is
called a 'chain reaction'. (When atoms split, matter is
converted into energy according to Einstein's equation
E=MC2. What better way to mark his birthday than with
your own atomic fireworks?)

There are two kinds (isotopes) of uranium: the rare
U-235, used in bombs, and the more common, heavier, but
useless U-238. Natural uranium contains less than 1
percent U-235 and in order to be usable in bombs it has
to be "enriched" to 90 percent U-235 and only 10
percent U-238. Plutonium-239 can also be used in bombs
as a substitute for U-235. Ten pounds of U-235 (or
slightly less plutonium) is all that is necessary for a
bomb. Less than ten pounds won't give you a critical
mass. So purifying or enriching naturally occurring
uranium is likely to be your first big hurdle. It is
infinitely easy to steal ready-to-use enriched uranium
or plutonium than to enrich some yourself. And stealing
uranium is not as hard as it sounds.

There are at least three sources of enriched uranium or
plutonium...

Enriched uranium is manufactured at a gaseous diffusion
plant in Portsmouth, Ohio. From there it is shipped in
10 liter bottles by airplane and trucks to conversion
plants that turn it into uranium oxide or uranium
metal. Each 10 liter bottle contains 7 kilograms of
U-235, and there are 20 bottles to a typical shipment.
Conversion facilities exist at Hematite, Missouri;
Apollo, Pennsylvania; and Erwin, Tennessee. The
Kerr-McGee plant at Crescent Oklahoma -- where Karen
Silkwood worked -- was a conversion plant that "lost"
40 lbs of plutonium. Enriched uranium can be stolen
from these plants or from fuel-fabricating plants like
those in New Haven, San Diego; or Lynchburg, Virginia.
(A former Kerr-McGee supervisor, James V. Smith, when
asked at the Silkwood trial if there were any security
precautions at the plant to prevent theft, testified
that 'There were none of any kind, no guards, no
fences, no nothing.')

Plutonium can be obtained from places like United
Nuclear in Pawling, New York; Nuclear Fuel Services in
Erwin, Tennessee; General Electric in Pleasanton,
California; Westinghouse in Cheswick, Pennsylvania;
Nuclear Materials and Equipment Corporation (NUMEC) in
Leechburg, Pennsylvania; and plants in Hanfford,
Washington and Morris, Illinois. According to Rolling
Stone magazine the Israelis were involved in the theft
of plutonium from NUMEC.

Finally you can steal enriched uranium or plutonium
while it's en-route from conversion plants to fuel
fabricating plants. It is usually transported (by air
or truck) in the form of uranium oxide, a brownish
powder resembling instant coffee, or as a metal, coming
in small chunks called "broken buttons." Both forms are
shipped in small cans stacked in 5-inch cylinders
braced with welded struts in the center of ordinary 55
gallon steel drums. The drums weigh about 100 pounds
and are clearly marked "Fissible Material" or "Danger,
Plutonium." A typical shipment might go from the
enrichment plant at Portsmouth, Ohio to the conversion
plant in Hematite Missouri then to Kansas City by truck
where it would be flown to Los Angeles and then trucked
down to the General Atomic plant in San Diego. The
plans for the General Atomic plant are on file at the
Nuclear Regulatory Commission's reading room at 1717 H
Street NW Washington. A Xerox machine is provided for
the convenience of the public.

If you can't get hold of any enriched uranium you'll
have to settle for commercial grade (20 percent U-235).
This can be stolen from university reactors of a type
called TRIGA Mark II, where security is even more
casual than at commercial plants.

If stealing uranium seems too tacky you can buy it.
Unenriched uranium is available at any chemical supply
house for $23 a pound. Commercial grade (3 to 20
percent enriched) is available for $40 a pound from
Gulf Atomic. You'll have to enrich it further yourself.
Quite frankly this can be something of a pain in the
{censored}. You'll need to start with a little more than 50
pounds of commercial-grade uranium. (It's only 20
percent U-235 at best, and you need 10 pounds of U-235
so... ) But with a little kitchen-table chemistry
you'll be able to convert the solid uranium oxide
you've purchased into a liquid form. Once you've done
that, you'll be able to separate the U-235 that you'll
need from the U-238.

First pour a few gallons of concentrated hydrofluoric
acid into your uranium oxide, converting it to uranium
tetrafluoride. (Safety note: Concentrated hydrofluoric
acid is so corrosive that it will eat its way through
glass, so store it only in plastic. Used 1-gallon
plastic milk containers will do.) Now you have to
convert your uranium tetrafluoride to uranium
hexafluoride, the gaseous form of uranium, which is
convenient for separating out the isotope U-235 from
U-238.

To get the hexafluoride form, bubble fluorine gas into
your container of uranium tetrafluoride. Fluorine is
available in pressurized tanks from chemical-supply
firms. Be careful how you use it though because
fluorine is several times more deadly than chlorine,
the classic World War I poison gas. Chemists recommend
that you carry out this step under a stove hood (the
kind used to remove unpleasant cooking odors).

If you've done your chemistry right you should now have
a generous supply of uranium hexafluoride ready for
enriching. In the old horse-and-buggy days of A-bomb
manufacture the enrichment was carried out by passing
the uranium hexafluoride through hundreds of miles of
pipes, tubes, and membranes, until the U-235 was
eventually separated from the U-238. This
gaseous-diffusion process, as it was called is
difficult, time-consuming, and expensive.
Gaseous-diffusion plants cover hundreds of acres and
cost in the neighborhood of $2-billion each. So forget
it. There are easier, and cheaper, ways to enrich your
uranium.

First transform the gas into a liquid by subjecting it
to pressure. You can use a bicycle pump for this. Then
make a simple home centrifuge. Fill a standard-size
bucket one-quarter full of liquid uranium hexafluoride.
Attach a six-foot rope to the bucket handle. Now swing
the rope (and attached bucket) around your head as fast
as possible. Keep this up for about 45 minutes. Slow
down gradually, and very gently put the bucket on the
floor. The U-235, which is lighter, will have risen to
the top, where it can be skimmed off like cream. Repeat
this step until you have the required 10 pounds of
uranium. (Safety note: Don't put all your enriched
uranium hexafluoride in one bucket. Use at least two or
three buckets and keep them in separate corners of the
room. This will prevent the premature build-up of a
critical mass.)

Now it's time to convert your enriched uranium back to
metal form. This is easily enough accomplished by
spooning several ladlefuls of calcium (available in
tablet form from your drugstore) into each bucket of
uranium. The calcium will react with the uranium
hexafluoride to produce calcium fluoride, a colorless
salt which can be easily be separated from your pure
enriched uranium metal.


A few precautions:

* While uranium is not dangerously radioactive in
the amounts you'll be handling, if you plan to
make more than one bomb it might be wise to wear
gloves and a lead apron, the kind you can buy in
dental supply stores.

* Plutonium is one of the most toxic substances
known. If inhaled, a thousandth of a gram can
cause massive fibrosis of the lungs, a painful way
to go. Even a millionth of a gram in the lungs
will cause cancer. If eaten plutonium is
metabolized like calcium. It goes straight to the
bones where it gives out alpha particles
preventing bone marrow from manufacturing red
blood cells. The best way to avoid inhaling
plutonium is to hold your breath while handling
it. If this is too difficult wear a mask. To avoid
ingesting plutonium orally follow this simple
rule: never make an A-bomb on an empty stomach.

* If you find yourself dozing off while you're
working, or if you begin to glow in the dark, it
might be wise to take a blood count. Prick your
finger with a sterile pin, place a drop of blood
on a microscope slide, cover it with a cover slip,
and examine under a microscope. (Best results are
obtained in the early morning.) When you get
leukemia, immature cells are released into the
bloodstream, and usually the number of white cells
increases (though this increase might take almost
2 weeks). Red blood cells look kind of like donuts
(without the hole), and are slightly smaller than
the white cells, each of which has a nucleus.
Immature red cells look similar to white cells
(i.e.. slightly larger and have a nucleus). If you
have more than about 1 white cell (including
immature ones) to 400 red cells then start to
worry. But, depending upon your plans for the
eventual use of the bomb, a short life expectancy
might not be a problem.

--------------------------------------------------------




Step 2: Assembling the A-Bomb

Now that you've acquired the enriched uranium, all
that's left is to assemble your A-bomb. Go find a
couple of stainless steel salad bowls. You also want to
separate your 10 pounds of U-235 into two hunks. (Keep
them apart!) The idea is to push each half your uranium
into the inside of a bowl.

Take one hunk of your uranium and beat it into the
inside of the first bowl. Uranium is malleable, like
gold, so you should have no trouble hammering it into
the bowl to get a good fit. Take another five-pound
hunk of uranium and fit it into a second stainless
steel bowl. These two bowls of U-235 are the
"subcritical masses" which, when brought together
forcefully, will provide the critical mass that makes
your A-bomb go. Keep them a respectful distance apart
while working because you don't want them to "go
critical" on you... At least not yet.

Now hollow out the body of an old vacuum cleaner and
place your two hemispherical bowls inside, open ends
facing each other, no less than seven inches apart,
using masking tape to set them up in position. The
reason for the steel bowls and the vacuum cleaner, in
case you're wondering, is that these help reflect the
neutrons back into the uranium for a more efficient
explosion. "A loose neutron is a useless neutron" as
the A-bomb pioneers used to say.

As far as the A-bomb goes, you're almost done. The
final problem is to figure out how to get the two U-235
hemispheres to smash into each other with sufficient
force to set off a truly effective fission reaction.
Almost any type of explosive can be used to drive them
together. Gunpowder, for example, is easily made at
home from potassium nitrate, sulfur, and carbon. Or,
you can get some blasting caps or TNT. (Buy them or
steal them from a construction site.) Best of all is C4
plastic explosive. You can mold it around your bowls,
and it's fairly safe to work with. (But, it might be
wise to shape it around an extra salad bowl in another
room, and THEN fit it to your uranium-packed bowls.
This is particularly true in winter, when a stray
static electrical charge might induce ignition in the
C4. A responsible bomb maker considers it impolite to
accidentally destroy more of the neighborhood than
absolutely necessary.)

Once the explosives are in place all you need to do is
hook up a simple detonation device with a few
batteries, a switch, and some wire. Remember though
that it is essential that the two charges -- one on
each side of the casing -- go off simultaneously.

Now put the whole thing in the casing of an old Hoover
vacuum cleaner and you're finished with this part of
the process.

The rest is easy.

--------------------------------------------------------


Step 3: Make More A-Bombs Following the Directions
Above


--------------------------------------------------------



A Word to the Wise About Wastes


After your A-bomb is completed you'll have a pile of
moderately fatal radioactive wastes like U-238. These
are not dangerous, but you do have to get rid of them.
You can flush leftovers down the toilet. (Don't worry
about polluting the ocean, there is already so much
radioactive waste there, a few more bucketfuls won't
make any waves whatsoever.) If you're the fastidious
type -- the kind who never leaves gum under their seat
at the movies -- you can seal the nasty stuff in coffee
cans and bury it in the backyard, just like Uncle Sam
does. If the neighbor kids have a habit of trampling
the lawn, tell them to play over by the waste. You'll
soon find that they're spending most of their time in
bed.

--------------------------------------------------------




Going First Class

If you're like us, you're feeling the economic pinch,
and you'll want to make your bomb as inexpensively as
possible, consonant of course with reasonable yield.
The recipe we've given is for a budget-pleasing H-bomb,
no frills, no flourishes; it's just a simple 5-megaton
bomb, capable of wiping out the New York metropolitan
area, the San Francisco Bay area, or Boston. But don't
forget, your H-bomb will only be as good as the A-bombs
in it.

If you want to spend a little more money you can
punch-up your A-bomb considerably. Instead of
centrifuging your uranium by hand, you can buy a
commercial centrifuge. (Fisher Scientific sells one for
about $1000.) You also might want to be fussier about
your design. The Hiroshima bomb, a relatively crude
one, only fissioned 1 percent of it's uranium and
yielded only 13 kilotons. In order to fission more of
the uranium, the force of your explosive "trigger"
needs to be evenly diffused around the sphere; the same
pressure has to be exerted on every point of the sphere
simultaneously. (It was a technique for producing this
sort of simultaneous detonation by fashioning the
explosives into lenses that the government accused
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg of trying to steal).

--------------------------------------------------------





Part 2: Putting Your H-Bomb Together


The heart of the H-bomb is the fusion process. Several
A-bombs are detonated in such a way as to create the
extremely high temperature (100 million degrees C)
necessary to fuse lithium deuteride (LiD) into helium.
When the lithium nucleus slams into the deuterium
nucleus, two helium nuclei are created, and if this
happens to enough deuterium nuclei rapidly enough, the
result is an enormous amount of energy: the energy of
the H-bomb. You don't have to worry about stealing
lithium deuteride, it can be purchased from any
chemical-supply house. It costs $1000 a pound. If your
budget won't allow it you can substitute lithium
hydride at $40 a pound. You will need at least 100
pounds. It's a corrosive and toxic powder so be
careful.

Place the lithium deuteride or hydride in glass jars
and surround it with four A-bombs in their casings.
Attach them to the same detonator so that they will go
off simultaneously. The container for the whole thing
is no problem. They can be placed anywhere: Inside an
old stereo console, a discarded refrigerator, etc...

When the detonator sets off the four A-bombs all eight
hemispheres of fissionable material will slam into each
other at the same time creating four critical masses
and four detonations. This will raise the temperature
of the lithium deuteride to 100 million degrees C fast
enough (a few billionths of a second) so that the
lithium will not be blown all over the neighborhood
before the nuclei have time to fuse. The result, at
least 1000 times the punch of the puny A-bomb that
leveled Hiroshima (20 million tons of TNT vs. 20
thousand tons.)





Part 3: What to do With Your Bomb

Now that you have a fully assembled H-bomb housed in an
attractive console of your choice you may be wondering,
"What should I do with it?" Every family will have to
answer this question according to its own tastes and
preferences, but you may want to explore some
possibilities which have been successfully pioneered by
the American government.

1. Sell Your Bomb and Make a Pile of Money

In these days of rising inflation, increasing
unemployment, and an uncertain economic outlook,
few businesses make as much sense as weapons
production. If your career forecast is cloudy,
bomb sales may be the only sure way to avoid the
humiliation of receiving welfare, or unemployment.
Regardless of your present income level, a home
H-bomb business can be an invaluable income
supplement, and certainly a profitable alternative
to selling Tupperware or pirated Girl Scout
cookies.

Unfortunately for the family bomb business, big
government has already cornered a large part of
the world market. But this does not mean that
there is a shortage of potential customers. The
raid on Entebee was the Waterloo of hijacking, and
many nationalist groups are now on the alert for
new means to get their message across. They'd jump
at the chance to get hold of an H-bomb. Emerging
nations which can't ante up enough rice or sugar
to buy themselves a reactor from G.E. or
Westinghouse are also shopping around.

You may wonder about the ethics of selling to
nations, or groups, whose goals you may disapprove
of. But here again, take a tip from our
government: forget ideology -- it's cash that
counts. And remember, H-bomb sales have a way of
escalating, almost like a chain reaction. Suppose
you make a sale to South Yemen which you believe
to be a Soviet puppet. Well within a few days some
discrete inquiries from North Yemen and possibly
the Saudis, the Egyptians and the Ethiopians as
well can be expected. Similarly, a sale to the IRA
will generate a sale to the Ulster government; and
a sale to the Tanzanians will bring the Ugandans
running, and so forth.

It doesn't matter WHICH side you're on, only how
many sides there are. Don't forget about the
possibility of repeat sales to the same customer.
As the experience of both the U.S. and the
U.S.S.R. has shown, each individual nation has a
potentially infinite need for H-bombs. No customer
-- no matter how small -- can ever have too many.


2. Use Your Bomb at Home


Many families are attracted to the H-bomb simply
as a "deterrent." A discrete sticker on the door
or on the living room window saying "This Home
Protected by H-bomb" will discourage IRS
investigators, census takers, and Jehovah's
Witnesses. You'll be surprised how fast the crime
rate will go down and property values will go up.
And once the news gets out that you are a home
H-bomb owner you'll find that you have unexpected
leverage in neighborhood disputes over everything
from parking places and stereo noise levels to
school tax rates. So relax and enjoy the pride and
excitement of home H-bomb ownership!

--------------------------------------------------------



Is It For You?


Let's be honest. The H-bomb isn't for everyone. Frankly
there are people who can't handle it. They break out in
hives at the very mention of mega-death, fallout, or
radiation sickness.

The following quiz will help you find out whether you
have what it takes for home H-bomb ownership. If you
can answer "yes" to six or more of these questions,
then you're emotionally eligible to join the nuclear
club. If not, a more conventional weapon may be more
your cup of tea, try botulism-toxin, laser rays, or
nerve gas.

1. I ignore the demands of others.

2. I subscribe to one or more of the following: Soldier
of Fortune, Hustler, Popular Mechanics, Self.

3. Though I have many interesting acquaintances, I am
my own best friend.

4. I know what to say after you say "Hello," but I am
seldom interested in pursuing the conversation.

5. I have seen the movie "The Deer Hunter" more than
once.

6. I know that everyone can be a winner if they want
to, and I resent whiners.

7. I own one or more of the following: handgun, video
game, trash compactor, snowmobile.

8. I am convinced that leukemia is psychosomatic.

9. I am aware that most vegetarians are sexually
impotent.

10. I have read evidence that solar energy is a
Communist conspiracy.

--------------------------------------------------------




Myths About Nuclear War

Ever since the first mushroom cloud over Hiroshima
ushered in the atomic age, a small group of nay-sayers
and doom-mongers has lobbied, campaigned and
demonstrated to convince Americans that H-bomb
ownership, along with nuclear power, is dangerous and
unhealthy. Using their virtual stranglehold over the
media, these people have tried to discredit everything
nuclear from energy to war. They have vastly overrated
the risks of nuclear bombs and left many Americans
feeling demoralized and indecisive; not sure where the
truth lies. Well, here are the myths, and here are the
facts.


Myth: After a nuclear exchange the earth will no longer
be suitable for human habitation.

Fact: This is completely false. According to one
scientist (quoted in John McPee's The Curve of Binding
Energy) "The largest bomb that has ever been exploded
anywhere was 60 megatons, and that is one-thousandth
the force of an earthquake, one-thousandth the force of
a hurricane. We have lived with earthquakes and
hurricanes for a long time." Another scientist adds,
"It is often assumed that a full blown nuclear war
would be the end of life on earth. That is far from the
truth. To end life on earth would take at least a
thousand times the total yield of all the nuclear
explosives existing in the world, and probably a lot
more." Even if humans succumbed, many forms of life
would survive a nuclear free-for-all, cockroaches,
certain forms of bacteria, and lichens, for instance.


Myth: Radiation is bad for you.

Fact: Everything is bad for you if you have too much of
it. If you eat too many bananas you'll get a
stomach-ache. If you get too much sun you can get
sunburned (or even skin cancer). Same thing with
radiation. Too much may make you feel under the
weather, but nuclear industry officials insist that
there is no evidence that low-level radiation has any
really serious adverse effects. And, high-level
radiation may bring unexpected benefits. It speeds up
evolution by weeding out unwanted genetic types and
creating new ones. (Remember the old saying, "Two heads
are better than one.") Nearer to home, it's plain that
radiation will get rid of pesky crab grass and weeds,
and teenagers will find that brief exposure to a
nuclear burst vaporizes acne and other skin blemishes.
(Many survivors of the Hiroshima bomb found that they
were free from skin and it's attendant problems
forever.)


We hope this clears up any misconceptions you may have
had. Enjoy your H-Bomb!

#2
dilnalomo

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does it work with the 8.8.1 kernel? i dont think JaS is going to patch that...

#3
U.C.

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[Zombie Voice] I need an H-bomb or A-bomb [/Zombie Voice]

#4
gwprod12

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I dont think it's particularly funny. But I dont claim my taste in humor is universal.

#5
NeSuKuN

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Has anyone tried this? any design suggestion for the 'this home is protected by H-Bomb' sign? Now I must find another tutorial like '[How-To] ballistic missile' or 'Laser guidance for noobs'

#6
Kiko

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Yeah, i did this in my younger days, (when i had skin), laser guidance is apin, just get a cheapo gps system and connect some servo's to it, make a rockt (empty barrel with propane gas can at the bottom and voila a rocket :D.

Nice tutorial lol

#7
lord_muad_dib

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what the... we already have apple legals on the back
we don't need more troubles.. lol

#8
MacSimilian

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arrrr im a crazy terrorist...aarrrrrrr :compress: :gun:

#9
icey-ice-ice

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What the heck is this? How is this related to computers at all?


Yeah how do i launch A-bombs from my hackintosh?

#10
~Neo

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:(
Ahm, I will make an installer for this (for easy use!)
You can then order it on my website!
;) hahaha lol

#11
oregano

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alright..........................................................

#12
consolation

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aww.... someone moved it out of tutorials.

I thought that this is the best way to get yourself a copy of mac os X that runs on anything.

1)make one of these puppies
2)pop up (down) to Cupertino for quick chat with Stevo.
3)upload to your favourite tracker.

Seems so much simpler than editing plists for the next ten years...
Damn it, why do I have to live in a nuclear free country. :pirate2:

#13
gameguy132

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I wouldnt be surprised if consolation suddenly stopped posting here...

#14
Takuro

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I liked the part where it said to swirl a bucket of U-238 over your head to seperate the U-235 from it like a centrifuge. Lol. I can see some guy in Alabama trying this and killing himself.

The scary part is, most of this stuff sounds like it was written by somebody who has a very good understanding of chemistry. The basic process is correct, but the tools used are really implausible. A vaccuum isn't much of a housing for sub-critical masses. :(





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