The error you're getting is most likely from a FakeSMC plugin which you don't really need unless you want hardware sensor support for HWMonitor or iStat Menus and such. Look inside FakeSMC.kext/Contents/PlugIns and delete whatever is in there for now. Take a picture of it the next time you see it so others can look at what it is specifically saying, but like I said my best guess is it's a FakeSMC plugin.
To get past any AppleIntelCPUPowerManagement kernel panic you just need to enable AsusAICPUPM in Clover config.plist. No need to patch AppleIntelCPUPowerManagement.kext itself anymore. What are you currently using in your Clover config.plist?
As for graphics - do you know if you have Nvidia Optimus enabled on your laptop or do you have it set to use only your dedicated Nvidia card in your BIOS settings? If you're stuck with Optimus only then you might have to roll back to only using HD3000 graphics, which is supported just fine. You can enable it through some options in Clover's config.plist. Since I'm asking plenty of questions regarding your config.plist, feel free to upload a copy so I can look at it.
As for the OS version, I have a Sandy Bridge laptop myself with similar hardware to yours and it runs 10.12 and 10.13 just fine.
edit: based on what I'm finding, your laptop model comes with GT 520MX that works through Optimus. If there's no option to disable that then you'll have to use HD3000 graphics in OS X/macOS.